Spain surrenders to Americans instead of to Filipinos
Secret negotiations between Major General Elwell Otis and Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes were facilitated by Belgian Consul Edouard Andre as early as August 9. The two commanders agreed to the details of the “battle” and the exclusion of the Filipinos in the event by prohibiting their march to Intramuros. On August 13, the mock battle started with a brief naval bombardment of the Fort San Antonio Abad (now the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas complex) by the U.S. Asiatic Squadron. It was followed by the capture of that fort by the Americans and their march in the southern and eastern flanks of Intramuros. The Filipino forces, led by Generals Gregorio del Pilar, Pio del Pilar, Mariano Noriel, and Artemio Ricarte (who were unaware of the secret deal), tried their best to join the fray by capturing the suburbs (arrabales) of Manila; however, they were blocked by the Americans to go to Intramuros as planned. After a brief firefight, the Spaniards surrendered to the U.S. troops, and the capitulation was signed inside the Casas Consistoriales (also known as the Ayuntamiento).
The mock battle started the tense relations between the Filipino and American military commanders as the former felt that they were deceived, thus becoming a threat to their independence. Subsequent events such as the signing of the Treaty of Paris in December 1898 will lead to the Filipino-American War in February 1899.
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